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Streptococcus pneumoniae and Noncapsular Haemophilus influenzae Nasal Carriage and Hand Contamination in Children: A comparison of two populations at risk of Otitis Media

Stubbs, Elizabeth, Hare, Kim M., Wilson, Cate, Morris, Peter S. and Leach, Amanda J. (2005). Streptococcus pneumoniae and Noncapsular Haemophilus influenzae Nasal Carriage and Hand Contamination in Children: A comparison of two populations at risk of Otitis Media. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal,24(5):423-428.

Document type: Journal Article
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IRMA ID 10108xPUB6
Title Streptococcus pneumoniae and Noncapsular Haemophilus influenzae Nasal Carriage and Hand Contamination in Children: A comparison of two populations at risk of Otitis Media
Author Stubbs, Elizabeth
Hare, Kim M.
Wilson, Cate
Morris, Peter S.
Leach, Amanda J.
Journal Name Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Publication Date 2005
Volume Number 24
Issue Number 5
ISSN 0891-3668   (check CDU catalogue  open catalogue search in new window)
Start Page 423
End Page 428
Total Pages 6
Place of Publication US
Publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Field of Research 1114 - Paediatrics and Reproductive Medicine
HERDC Category C1 - Journal Article (DEST)
Abstract Background: Australian Indigenous children living in remote areas have rates of tympanic membrane perforation as high as 60%, almost 100 times the prevalence in urban child care settings (<1%). Relative rates of pneumococcal nasal carriage do not reflect this difference in disease risk.

Methods: Cross-sectional comparison of nasal carriage and hand contamination in children younger than 4 years of age from urban child-care centers and Indigenous children 3-7 years of age from a remote community. Almost identical methods of nasal swab collection, transport and culture were used. Data on pneumococcal antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and serotypes are also reported.

Results: For Indigenous children compared with children in child care, the relative risk of nasal carriage of either pneumococcus or noncapsular Haemophilus influenzae was <2-fold [relative risk, 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5, 1.9], the risk of simultaneous nasal carriage was almost 3-fold (78% versus 28%; relative risk, 2.9; 95% CI 2.3, 3.5), and the risk of pneumococcal hand contamination was 8-fold higher (37% versus 4%; relative risk, 8.4; 95% CI 4.6, 15.2). For simultaneous hand contamination, the risk was 23-fold (8% versus 0.3%; relative risk, 23.1; 95% CI 2.9, 185.4). Remote Indigenous children also had a more diverse serotype distribution (25 versus 14 serotypes identified).

Conclusions: Simultaneous nasal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae and hand contamination are simple indicators of risk for use in studies of otitis media in populations at risk for tympanic membrane perforation.
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000160945.87356.ca   (check subscription with CDU E-Gateway service for CDU Staff and Students  check subscription with CDU E-Gateway in new window)
 
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