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Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

Hodge, Allison, Cunningham, Joan, Maple-Brown, Louise J., Dunbar, Terry E. and O'Dea, Kerin (2011). Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study. BMC Public Health,11(1):76-85.

Document type: Journal Article
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IRMA ID bsmithxPUB11
Title Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study
Author Hodge, Allison
Cunningham, Joan
Maple-Brown, Louise J.
Dunbar, Terry E.
O'Dea, Kerin
Journal Name BMC Public Health
Publication Date 2011
Volume Number 11
Issue Number 1
ISSN 1471-2458   (check CDU catalogue open catalogue search in new window)
Scopus ID 2-s2.0-79251639427
Start Page 76
End Page 85
Total Pages 10
Place of Publication United Kingdom
Publisher BioMed Central Ltd.
HERDC Category C1 - Journal Article (DIISR)
Abstract Background: Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES). Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES.

Methods: Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes) Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15). Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice).

Results: SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend <0.001), lycopene (p trend = 0.001), α- and ß-carotene (p trend = 0.019 and 0.026 respectively), after adjusting for age, sex, glucose tolerance status, smoking, alcohol use, hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemia, self-reported health, waist to hip ratio and body mass index. These associations remained after adjustment for self-reported frequency of intake of fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods and fruit juice, which all showed some association with plasma carotenoids. Even in the highest SES quintile, concentrations of all carotenoids (except lycopene) were lower than the mean concentrations in a non-Indigenous population.

Conclusions: Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.
Keywords plasma carotenoids
socioeconomic status
urban Indigenous population
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-76   (check subscription with CDU E-Gateway service for CDU Staff and Students  check subscription with CDU E-Gateway in new window)


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