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Antibiotics for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children (Review)

Mulholland, Selamawit, Gavranich, John B. and Chang, Anne B. (2010). Antibiotics for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,2010(7):1-32.

Document type: Journal Article
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IRMA ID 81704288xPUB221
Title Antibiotics for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children (Review)
Author Mulholland, Selamawit
Gavranich, John B.
Chang, Anne B.
Journal Name Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Publication Date 2010
Volume Number 2010
Issue Number 7
ISSN 1469-493X   (check CDU catalogue  open catalogue search in new window)
Start Page 1
End Page 32
Total Pages 32
Place of Publication United Kingdom
Publisher John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
HERDC Category C1 - Journal Article (DIISR)
Abstract Background
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is widely recognised as an important cause of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children. Pulmonary manifestations are typically tracheobronchitis or pneumonia but M. pneumoniae is also implicated in wheezing episodes in both asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals. Although antibiotics are used to treat LRTI, a review of several major textbooks offers conflicting advice for using antibiotics in the management of M. pneumoniae LRTI in children.

Objectives
To determine whether antibiotics are effective in the treatment of childhood LRTI secondary to M. pneumoniae infections acquired in the community.

Search methods
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, issue 1), which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010) and EMBASE (1980 to February 2010).

Selection criteria
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antibiotics commonly used for treating M. pneumoniae (i.e. macrolide, tetracycline or quinolone classes) versus placebo, or antibiotics from any other class in the treatment of children under 18 years of age with community-acquired LRTI secondary to M. pneumoniae.

Data collection and analysis
The review authors independently selected trials for inclusion and assessed methodological quality. We extracted and analysed relevant data separately. Disagreements were resolved by consensus.

Main results
A total of 1912 children were enrolled from seven studies. Data interpretation was limited by the inability to extract data that referred to children with M. pneumoniae. In most studies, clinical response did not differ between children randomised to a macrolide antibiotic and children randomised to a non-macrolide antibiotic. In one controlled study (of children with recurrent respiratory infections, whose acute LRTI was associated with Mycoplasma, Chlamydia or both by polymerase chain reaction, and/or paired sera) 100% of children treated with azithromycin had clinical resolution of their illness compared to 77% not treated with azithromycin at one month.

Authors' conclusions
There is insufficient evidence to draw any specific conclusions about the efficacy of antibiotics for this condition in children (although one trial suggests macrolides may be efficacious in some children with LRTI secondary to Mycoplasma). The use of antibiotics has to be balanced with possible adverse events. There is still a need for high quality, double-blinded RCTs to assess the efficacy and safety of antibiotics for LRTI secondary to M. pneumoniae in children.
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004875.pub3   (check subscription with CDU E-Gateway service for CDU Staff and Students  check subscription with CDU E-Gateway in new window)


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