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Risk factors associated with typhoid fever in children aged 2-16 years in Karachi, Pakistan

Khan, M. I., Ochiai, R. L., Soofi, S. B., von Seidlein, Lorenz, Khan, M. J., Sahito, S. M., Habib, M. A., Puri, M. K., Park, J. K., You, Y. A., Ali, M., Nizami, S. Q., Acosta, C. J., Bradley-Sack, R., Clemens, J. D. and Bhutta, Z. A. (2012). Risk factors associated with typhoid fever in children aged 2-16 years in Karachi, Pakistan. Epidemiology and Infection,140(4):665-672.

Document type: Journal Article
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IRMA ID kmckayxPUB54
Title Risk factors associated with typhoid fever in children aged 2-16 years in Karachi, Pakistan
Author Khan, M. I.
Ochiai, R. L.
Soofi, S. B.
von Seidlein, Lorenz
Khan, M. J.
Sahito, S. M.
Habib, M. A.
Puri, M. K.
Park, J. K.
You, Y. A.
Ali, M.
Nizami, S. Q.
Acosta, C. J.
Bradley-Sack, R.
Clemens, J. D.
Bhutta, Z. A.
Journal Name Epidemiology and Infection
Publication Date 2012
Volume Number 140
Issue Number 4
ISSN 0950-2688   (check CDU catalogue open catalogue search in new window)
Start Page 665
End Page 672
Total Pages 7
Place of Publication Cambridge, U.K.
Publisher Cambridge University Press
HERDC Category C1 - Journal Article (DIISR)
Abstract We analysed the data from the control group in a typhoid vaccine trial in Karachi to assess the differences in individual-, household- and cluster-level characteristics for developing typhoid fever. The annual incidence of typhoid in children aged 2–16 years in the control arm of the vaccine trial was 151/100 000 population. After adjustment, the risk of typhoid was lower with increasing age [risk ratio (RR) 0·89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·83–0·95], was higher with an increase in population density (RR 1·13, 95% CI 1·05–1·21) and was lower in the households using a safe drinking-water source (RR 0·63, 95% CI 0·41–0·99). Typhoid fever affects younger children living in areas of high population density and lack of access to safe water in Pakistan. A combination of environmental and biological interventions is required to prevent the continued epidemiological and economic impact of typhoid fever in high-risk areas of Pakistan.
Keywords Enteric bacteria
infectious disease epidemiology
risk assessment
Salmonella Typhi
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