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Eutrophication has no short-term effect on the Cymbastela stipitata holobiont

Luter, Heidi M., Gibb, Karen and Webster, Nicole S. (2014). Eutrophication has no short-term effect on the Cymbastela stipitata holobiont. Frontiers in Microbiology,5(Article No. 216).

Document type: Journal Article
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ISI LOC 000336024000002
IRMA ID 75039815xPUB284
Title Eutrophication has no short-term effect on the Cymbastela stipitata holobiont
Author Luter, Heidi M.
Gibb, Karen
Webster, Nicole S.
Journal Name Frontiers in Microbiology
Publication Date 2014-05-14
Volume Number 5
Issue Number Article No. 216
ISSN 1664-302X   (check CDU catalogue open catalogue search in new window)
Scopus ID 2-s2.0-84904871428
Total Pages 10
Place of Publication Switzerland
Publisher Frontiers Research Foundation
Field of Research 270300 Microbiology
HERDC Category C1 - Journal Article (DIISR)
Abstract Levels of nitrogen in coastal areas have been rapidly increasing due to accumulative inputs of sewage and terrigenous sediments carrying fertilizers. Sponges have an immense filtering capacity and may be directly impacted (positively or negatively) by elevated concentrations of nitrogen. Sponges also host a wide diversity of microbes involved in nitrogen metabolism, yet little is known about the effects of nitrogen loading on these symbiotic partnerships. Manipulative experiments were undertaken to examine the potential effects of excess nitrogen (up to 240 μM) on microbial symbiosis in the abundant sponge species Cymbastela stipitata. Microbial composition and activity were examined using 454-pyrotag sequencing of DNA- and RNA-derived samples. Despite the high levels of nitrogen exposure (up to 124-fold above ambient), sponges appeared visibly unaffected at all treatment concentrations. At the phylum level, the microbial community was consistent between all sponge samples regardless of nitrogen treatment, with Cyanobacteria and Thaumarchaeota being the dominant taxa. Higher microbial diversity was observed at the operational taxonomic units (OTU) level (97% sequence similarity), with only 40% of OTUs shared between samples from all treatments. However, a single cyanobacterial OTU dominated the community of all individuals (average 73.5%) and this OTU did not vary with nitrogen treatment. The conserved microbial community in all sponges irrespective of nitrogen treatment highlights the stability of the sponge-microbe relationship and indicates that the holobiont is resistant to short pulses of nitrogen at levels mimicking sewage effluent.

Keywords C. stipitata
Microbial community
Sponge-microbe symbiosis
Sewage effluent
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Additional Notes This Document is Protected by copyright and was first published by Frontiers. All rights reserved. It is reproduced with permission. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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