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Effects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth: a review of the literature focusing on contextual factors

Liberato, Selma C., Singh, Gurmeet R. and Mulholland, E. Kim (2013). Effects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth: a review of the literature focusing on contextual factors. Food and Nutrition Research,57:1-14.

Document type: Journal Article
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IRMA ID 11035xPUB47
Title Effects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth: a review of the literature focusing on contextual factors
Author Liberato, Selma C.
Singh, Gurmeet R.
Mulholland, E. Kim
Journal Name Food and Nutrition Research
Publication Date 2013
Volume Number 57
ISSN 1654-6628   (check CDU catalogue  open catalogue search in new window)
Start Page 1
End Page 14
Total Pages 14
Place of Publication Sweden
Publisher Co-Action Publishing
HERDC Category C1 - Journal Article (DIISR)
Abstract Background
Maternal diet during pregnancy is one of the most important factors associated with adequate fetal growth. There are many complications associated with fetal growth restriction that lead to lifelong effects. The aim of this review was to describe the studies examining the effects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth focusing on the contextual differences.

Methods
Relevant articles published between 2007 and 2012 were identified through systematic electronic searches of the PubMed, Science Direct, and EBSCO database and the examination of the bibliographies of retrieved articles. The search aimed to identify studies examining pregnant women receiving protein and/or energy during pregnancy and to assess fetal growth measures. Data of effectiveness and practical aspects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy were extracted and compiled.

Results
Twenty studies (11 randomized controlled trials, 8 controlled before and after, and 1 prospective study) were included in this review. Positive outcomes in infants and women cannot be expected if the supplementation is not needed. Therefore, it is essential to correctly select women who will benefit from dietary intervention programs during pregnancy. However, there is currently no consensus on the most effective method of identifying these women. The content of protein in the supplements considering total diet is also an important determinant of fetal growth. Balanced protein energy supplementation (containing up to 20% of energy as protein) given to pregnant women with energy or protein deficit appears to improve fetal growth, increase birth weight (by 95–324 g) and height (by 4.6–6.1 mm), and decrease the percentage of low birth weight (by 6%). Supplements with excess protein (>20% of energy as protein) provided to women with a diet already containing adequate protein may conversely impair fetal growth. There is also no consensus on the best time to start supplementation.

Conclusions
Strong quality studies examining adequate criteria to screen women who would benefit from supplementation, time to start supplementation, and type of supplements are warranted.

Keywords Maternal supplements
Protein energy supplements
Fetal growth
Intrauterine growth
Infants
Birth weight
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v57i0.20499   (check subscription with CDU E-Gateway service for CDU Staff and Students  check subscription with CDU E-Gateway in new window)
Additional Notes This article is only available via html view. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Description for Link Link to CC Attribution 3.0 License
URL https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/legalcode


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