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Prevention of contrast-induced AKI: a review of published trials and the design of the prevention of serious adverse events following angiography (PRESERVE) trial

Weisbord, Steven D., Gallagher, Martin, Kaufman, James, Cass, Alan, Parikh, Chirag R., Chertow, Glenn M., Shunk, Kendrick A., McCullough, Peter A., Fine, Michael J., Mor, Maria K., Lew, Robert A., Huang, Grant D., Conner, Todd A., Brophy, Mary T., Lee, Joanne, Soliva, Susan and Palevsky, Paul M. (2013). Prevention of contrast-induced AKI: a review of published trials and the design of the prevention of serious adverse events following angiography (PRESERVE) trial. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology,8(9):1618-1631.

Document type: Journal Article

IRMA ID 11035xPUB76
Title Prevention of contrast-induced AKI: a review of published trials and the design of the prevention of serious adverse events following angiography (PRESERVE) trial
Author Weisbord, Steven D.
Gallagher, Martin
Kaufman, James
Cass, Alan
Parikh, Chirag R.
Chertow, Glenn M.
Shunk, Kendrick A.
McCullough, Peter A.
Fine, Michael J.
Mor, Maria K.
Lew, Robert A.
Huang, Grant D.
Conner, Todd A.
Brophy, Mary T.
Lee, Joanne
Soliva, Susan
Palevsky, Paul M.
Journal Name Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Publication Date 2013
Volume Number 8
Issue Number 9
ISSN 1555-9041   (check CDU catalogue open catalogue search in new window)
Start Page 1618
End Page 1631
Total Pages 14
Place of Publication United States
Publisher American Society of Nephrology
HERDC Category C1 - Journal Article (DIISR)
Abstract Contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI) is a common condition associated with serious, adverse outcomes. CI-AKI may be preventable because its risk factors are well characterized and the timing of renal insult is commonly known in advance. Intravenous (IV) fluids and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are two of the most widely studied preventive measures for CI-AKI. Despite a multitude of clinical trials and meta-analyses, the most effective type of IV fluid (sodium bicarbonate versus sodium chloride) and the benefit of NAC remain unclear. Careful review of published trials of these interventions reveals design limitations that contributed to their inconclusive findings. Such design limitations include the enrollment of small numbers of patients, increasing the risk for type I and type II statistical errors; the use of surrogate primary endpoints defined by small increments in serum creatinine, which are associated with, but not necessarily causally related to serious, adverse, patient-centered outcomes; and the inclusion of low-risk patients with intact baseline kidney function, yielding low event rates and reduced generalizability to a higher-risk population. The Prevention of Serious Adverse Events following Angiography (PRESERVE) trial is a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial that will enroll 8680 high-risk patients undergoing coronary or noncoronary angiography to compare the effectiveness of IV isotonic sodium bicarbonate versus IV isotonic sodium chloride and oral NAC versus oral placebo for the prevention of serious, adverse outcomes associated with CI-AKI. This article discusses key methodological issues of past trials investigating IV fluids and NAC and how they informed the design of the PRESERVE trial.
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.11161012   (check subscription with CDU E-Gateway service for CDU Staff and Students  check subscription with CDU E-Gateway in new window)
 
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Created: Thu, 07 Aug 2014, 16:57:38 CST