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Bridges, brokers and boundary spanners in collaborative networks: a systematic review

Long, Janet, Cunningham, Frances C. and Braithwaite, Jeffrey (2013). Bridges, brokers and boundary spanners in collaborative networks: a systematic review. BMC Health Services Research,13:158-1-158-13.

Document type: Journal Article
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NHMRC Grant No. DP0986493
Title Bridges, brokers and boundary spanners in collaborative networks: a systematic review
Author Long, Janet
Cunningham, Frances C.
Braithwaite, Jeffrey
Journal Name BMC Health Services Research
Publication Date 2013
Volume Number 13
ISSN 1472-6963   (check CDU catalogue  open catalogue search in new window)
Scopus ID 2-s2.0-84876807792
Start Page 158-1
End Page 158-13
Total Pages 1
Place of Publication United Kingdom
Publisher BioMed Central Ltd.
HERDC Category C1 - Journal Article (DIISR)
Abstract Background
Bridges, brokers and boundary spanners facilitate transactions and the flow of information between people or groups who either have no physical or cognitive access to one another, or alternatively, who have no basis on which to trust each other. The health care sector is a context that is rich in isolated clusters, such as silos and professional “tribes,” in need of connectivity. It is a key challenge in health service management to understand, analyse and exploit the role of key agents who have the capacity to connect disparate groupings in larger systems.

Methods
The empirical, peer reviewed, network theory literature on brokerage roles was reviewed for the years 1994 to 2011 following PRISMA guidelines.

Results
The 24 articles that made up the final literature set were from a wide range of settings and contexts not just healthcare. Methods of data collection, analysis, and the ways in which brokers were identified varied greatly. We found four main themes addressed in the literature: identifying brokers and brokerage opportunities, generation and integration of innovation, knowledge brokerage, and trust. The benefits as well as the costs of brokerage roles were examined.

Conclusions
Collaborative networks by definition, seek to bring disparate groups together so that they can work effectively and synergistically together. Brokers can support the controlled transfer of specialised knowledge between groups, increase cooperation by liaising with people from both sides of the gap, and improve efficiency by introducing “good ideas” from one isolated setting into another.
There are significant costs to brokerage. Densely linked networks are more efficient at diffusing information to all their members when compared to sparsely linked groups. This means that while a bridge across a structural hole allows information to reach actors that were previously isolated, it is not the most efficient way to transfer information. Brokers who become the holders of, or the gatekeepers to, specialised knowledge or resources can become overwhelmed by the role and so need support in order to function optimally.
Keywords Borokerage
Collaborative networks
Structural holes
Social network theory
Knowledge transfer
Additional Notes This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Description for Link Link to CC Attribution 3.0 License
Link to published version
URL https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/legalcode
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/13/158/abstract#


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