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Structural behaviour of segmental arch structures

Lolias, Yianni (2014). Structural behaviour of segmental arch structures. Bachelor of Engineering Co-op (4th Year Project) Thesis, Charles Darwin University.

Document type: Thesis
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Author Lolias, Yianni
Title Structural behaviour of segmental arch structures
Institution Charles Darwin University
Publication Date 2014
Thesis Type Bachelor of Engineering Co-op (4th Year Project)
Subjects 0905 - Civil Engineering
0999 - Other Engineering
Abstract Arch structures have been utilized through the ages, beginning in the ancient civilizations of Greece, Egypt and Rome, to present day with their common use in bridges. Arches are well known for the ability to carry loads spanning large areas. This thesis aims to determine key structural behaviours of segmented arch structures under concentrated loading by conducting experiments and developing finite element models. Segmented arch refers to the traditional masonry construction using voussoir sections (stone blocks). Three segmented arch scale models have been constructed using concrete in attempt to compare finite element computer models to structural behaviour experienced in a practical experiment. A number of finite element models have being developed using the SAP2000 program. Each model loaded in the same way as the concrete model, analysed, and compared. Structural behaviours considered include internal stress, deflections and predicted location of failure points. Finite element arch models which are under the influence of stressing tendons (acting as post-tension cables) have also been developed and compared to a scale post-tensioned concrete model. The results from finite element models and scale concrete models will give an insight to the level of difficulty and accuracy to which the physical behaviour can be modelled. The comparison will provide an understanding of the general behaviour of arches under concentrated loading. Through this study, it has been found when comparing arch attributes such as the shape and rise to span ratio, that there is a number of key behavioural differences between the arches. These are as follows:
♦ Parabolic arches deflect less in the vertical direction than corresponding circular arches for the same rise and span, for almost all given loading cases.
♦ Most predicted values of shear force were found to be less in parabolic arches when compared to corresponding circular arches, and the difference between these corresponding values was found to increase with increasing rise to span ratio.
♦ It was found that the amount of tension experienced due to the dead load of an arch could be minimized if not removed completely by using a parabolic arch.
The post-tensioned concrete arch which was constructed and tested, withstood a substantially greater load than the solid voussoir arch before failure. The addition of a tension member to produce compressive stresses in the concrete is therefore very effective in increasing the structures loading capacity when concentrated loads are applied.
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Created: Wed, 27 Aug 2014, 09:45:38 CST