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Systemic nitric oxide production in human malaria: II. Analysis of mononuclear cell nitric oxide synthase type 2 antigen expression

Saunders, J. R., Misukonis, M. A., Weinberg, J. B. and Anstey, Nicholas M. (2002). Systemic nitric oxide production in human malaria: II. Analysis of mononuclear cell nitric oxide synthase type 2 antigen expression. In Doolan, DL(Ed.), Malaria Methods and Protocols. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. (pp. 461-467).

Document type: Book Chapter
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Author Saunders, J. R.
Misukonis, M. A.
Weinberg, J. B.
Anstey, Nicholas M.
Title of Chapter Systemic nitric oxide production in human malaria: II. Analysis of mononuclear cell nitric oxide synthase type 2 antigen expression
Title of Book Malaria Methods and Protocols
Place of Publication Totowa, NJ
Publisher Humana Press
Publication Year 2002
Series Methods in Molecular Medicine
Editor Doolan, DL
ISBN 0896038238   (check CDU catalogue  open catalogue search in new window)
Chapter Number 72
Start Page 461
End Page 467
Language English
Field of Research 320000 Medical and Health Sciences
Abstract As described in Chapter 42, niric oxide (NO) is synthesized from the amino acid l-arginine by the actions of a family of enymes, the NO synthases (NOS), each isoform of which is encoded by a separate gene. Two NOS isoforms are calcium-dependent and constitutively expressed and produce low levels of NO: NOS1 (neuronal NOS or nNOS), which is found mostly in neurons and skeletal muscle, and NOS3 (endothelial NOS or eNOS), which is found mostly in endothelial cells. NOS1 is critical for neurotransmission and learning, and NOS3 regulates vascular tone and adhesion of circulating cells. Inducible NOS (iNOS or NOS2) is transcriptionally induced by proinflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interferon-γ [IFN-γ]) and microbial products (e.g., lipoplysaccharide [LPS]). iNOS is calciumindependent, expressed by many cell types (especially mononuclear phagocytes, hepatocytes, chondrocytes and smooth muscle cells) and is responsible for high output NO production (1-3). While initial studies showed that iNOS expression within mouse macrophages resulted in high-output NO production, until recently there was doubt as to whether human macrophages were capable of producing NO. There is now clear evidence however that human monocytes and tissue macrophages can express iNOS and produce NO both in vitro and in vivo (3), including evidence from malaria-exposed Tanzanian children (4).
Keyword Human
Malaria
molecular
mononuclear
nitric oxide
 
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Created: Mon, 17 Dec 2007, 09:02:11 CST