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Murray Valley encephalitis virus surveillance and control initiatives in Australia.

Spencer, Jenean D., Azoulas, Joe, Broom, Annette K., Buick, Tim D., Daniels, Peter W., Doggett, Stephen L., Hapgood, George D., Jarrett, Peter J., Lindsay, Michael D., Lloyd, Glenis, Mackenzie, John S., Merianos, Angela, Moran, Rodney J., Ritchie, Scott A., Russell, Richard C., Smith, David W., Stenhouse, Fay O. and Whelan, Peter I. (2001). Murray Valley encephalitis virus surveillance and control initiatives in Australia.. Communicable Diseases Intelligence,25(2):33-47.

Document type: Journal Article
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Title Murray Valley encephalitis virus surveillance and control initiatives in Australia.
Author Spencer, Jenean D.
Azoulas, Joe
Broom, Annette K.
Buick, Tim D.
Daniels, Peter W.
Doggett, Stephen L.
Hapgood, George D.
Jarrett, Peter J.
Lindsay, Michael D.
Lloyd, Glenis
Mackenzie, John S.
Merianos, Angela
Moran, Rodney J.
Ritchie, Scott A.
Russell, Richard C.
Smith, David W.
Stenhouse, Fay O.
Whelan, Peter I.
Journal Name Communicable Diseases Intelligence
Publication Date 2001
Volume Number 25
Issue Number 2
ISSN 1447-4514   (check CDU catalogue open catalogue search in new window)
Start Page 33
End Page 47
Total Pages 15
Place of Publication Canberra, ACT, Australia
Publisher Australian Government. Department of Health and Ageing. Office of Health Protection, Surveillance Branch
Language English
Field of Research 320000 Medical and Health Sciences
Abstract Mechanisms for monitoring Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) virus activity include surveillance of human cases, surveillance for activity in sentinel animals, monitoring of mosquito vectors and monitoring of weather conditions. The monitoring of human cases is only one possible trigger for public health action and the additional surveillance systems are used in concert to signal the risk of human disease, often before the appearance of human cases. Mosquito vector surveillance includes mosquito trapping for speciation and enumeration of mosquitoes to monitor population sizes and relative composition. Virus isolation from mosquitoes can also be undertaken. Monitoring of weather conditions and vector surveillance determines whether there is a potential for MVE activity to occur. Virus isolation from trapped mosquitoes is necessary to define whether MVE is actually present, but is difficult to deliver in a timely fashion in some jurisdictions. Monitoring of sentinel animals indicates whether MVE transmission to vertebrates is actually occurring. Meteorological surveillance can assist in the prediction of potential MVE virus activity by signalling conditions that have been associated with outbreaks of Murray Valley encephalitis in humans in the past. Predictive models of MVE virus activity for south-eastern Australia have been developed, but due to the infrequency of outbreaks, are yet to be demonstrated as useful for the forecasting of major outbreaks. Surveillance mechanisms vary across the jurisdictions. Surveillance of human disease occurs in all States and Territories by reporting of cases to health authorities. Sentinel flocks of chickens are maintained in 4 jurisdictions (Western Australia, the Northern Territory, Victoria and New South Wales) with collaborations between Western Australia and the Northern Territory. Mosquito monitoring complements the surveillance of sentinel animals in these jurisdictions. In addition, other mosquito monitoring programs exist in other States (including South Australia and Queensland). Public health control measures may include advice to the general public and mosquito management programs to reduce the numbers of both mosquito larvae and adult vectors. Strategic plans for public health action in the event of MVE virus activity are currently developed or being developed in New South Wales, the Northern Territory, South Australia, Western Australia and Victoria. A southern tri-State agreement exists between health departments of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia and the Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care. All partners have agreed to co-operate and provide assistance in predicting and combatting outbreaks of mosquito-borne disease in south-eastern Australia. The newly formed National Arbovirus Advisory Committee is a working party providing advice to the Communicable Diseases Network Australia on arbovirus surveillance and control. Recommendations for further enhancement of national surveillance for Murray Valley encephalitis are described.
Keywords Murray Valley encephalitis
Kunjin virus
Mosquito control
Additional Notes Current title: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report (ISSN: 1447-4514 (print) 1445-4866 (online))
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