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Persistent ICT malaria P.f/P.v panmalarial and HRP2 antigen reactivity after treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with gametocytemia and results in false-positive diagnoses of Plasmodium vivax in convalescence

Tjitra, Emiliana, Suprianto, Sri, McBroom, James, Currie, Bart J. and Anstey, Nicholas M. (2001). Persistent ICT malaria P.f/P.v panmalarial and HRP2 antigen reactivity after treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with gametocytemia and results in false-positive diagnoses of Plasmodium vivax in convalescence. Journal of Clinical Microbiology,39(3):1025-1031.

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Title Persistent ICT malaria P.f/P.v panmalarial and HRP2 antigen reactivity after treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with gametocytemia and results in false-positive diagnoses of Plasmodium vivax in convalescence
Author Tjitra, Emiliana
Suprianto, Sri
McBroom, James
Currie, Bart J.
Anstey, Nicholas M.
Journal Name Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Publication Date 2001
Volume Number 39
Issue Number 3
ISSN 1098-660X   (check CDU catalogue  open catalogue search in new window)
Start Page 1025
End Page 1031
Total Pages 7
Place of Publication Washington, United States
Publisher American Society for Microbiology
Language English
Field of Research 320000 Medical and Health Sciences
Abstract A problem with rapid Plasmodium falciparum-specific antigen histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) detection tests for malaria is the persistence of antigen in blood after the disappearance of asexual-stage parasitaemia and clinical symptoms, resulting in false-positive (FP) test results following treatment. The ICT P.f/P.v immunochromatographic test detects both HRP2 and a panmalarial antigen (PMA) found in both P. falciparum and P. vivax. To examine posttreatment antigen persistence with this test and whether persistent sexual-stage forms (gametocytes) are a cause of FP tests after treatment, we compared serial antigen test results with microscopy results from patients symptomatic with P. falciparum malaria in Indonesia for 28 days following treatment with chloroquine (CQ; n = 66), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP; n = 36), and artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (ART + SP; n = 15) [date not given]. Persistent FP antigenaemia following SP treatment occurred in 29% (HRP2) and 42% (PMA) of the patients on day 7 and in 10% (HRP2) and 23% (PMA) on day 14. The high rates of persistent HRP2 and PMA antigenaemia following CQ and SP treatment were strongly associated with the presence of gametocytaemia, with the proportion with gametocytes on day 7 posttreatment being significantly greater in those with FP results than in those with true-negative PMA and HRP2 results. Gametocyte frequency on day 14 post-SP treatment was also greater in those with FP PMA results. Following SP treatment, PMA persisted longer than HRP2, giving an FP diagnosis of P. vivax in up to 16% of patients on day 14, with all FP P. vivax diagnoses having gametocytaemia. In contrast, PMA was rapidly cleared following ART + SP treatment in association with rapid clearance of gametocytaemia. Gametocytes appear to be an important cause of persistent posttreatment panmalarial antigenaemia in areas of endemicity and may also contribute in part to persistent HRP2 antigenaemia following treatment.
Keywords antigen
convalescence
falciparum
gametocytemia
Malaria
panmalarial
Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium vivax
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.39.3.1025-1031.2001   (check subscription with CDU E-Gateway service for CDU Staff and Students  check subscription with CDU E-Gateway in new window)
Additional Notes Copyright by the American Society for Microbiology


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