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High prevalence and two dominant host-specific genotypes of Coxiella burnetii in U.S. milk

Pearson, Talima, Hornstra, Heidie M., Hilsabeck, Remy, Gates, Lauren T., Olivas, Sonora M., Birdsell, Dawn M., Hall, Carina M., German, Sabrina, Cook, James M., Seymour, Meagan L., Priestley, Rachael A., Kondas, Ashley V., Clark, Friedman, Price, Erin P., Schupp, James M., Liu, Cindy M., Price, Lance B., Massung, Robert F., Kersh, Gilbert J. and Keim, Paul (2014). High prevalence and two dominant host-specific genotypes of Coxiella burnetii in U.S. milk. BMC Microbiology,14(Article No. 41).

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Title High prevalence and two dominant host-specific genotypes of Coxiella burnetii in U.S. milk
Author Pearson, Talima
Hornstra, Heidie M.
Hilsabeck, Remy
Gates, Lauren T.
Olivas, Sonora M.
Birdsell, Dawn M.
Hall, Carina M.
German, Sabrina
Cook, James M.
Seymour, Meagan L.
Priestley, Rachael A.
Kondas, Ashley V.
Clark, Friedman
Price, Erin P.
Schupp, James M.
Liu, Cindy M.
Price, Lance B.
Massung, Robert F.
Kersh, Gilbert J.
Keim, Paul
Journal Name BMC Microbiology
Publication Date 2014
Volume Number 14
Issue Number Article No. 41
ISSN 1471-2180   (check CDU catalogue open catalogue search in new window)
Scopus ID 2-s2.0-84896702427
Total Pages 9
Place of Publication United Kingdom
Publisher BioMed Central Ltd.
HERDC Category C1 - Journal Article (DIISR)
Abstract Background
Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever in humans and Coxiellosis in animals; symptoms range from general malaise to fever, pneumonia, endocarditis and death. Livestock are a significant source of human infection as they shed C. burnetii cells in birth tissues, milk, urine and feces. Although prevalence of C. burnetii is high, few Q fever cases are reported in the U.S. and we have a limited understanding of their connectedness due to difficulties in genotyping. Here, we develop canonical SNP genotyping assays to evaluate spatial and temporal relationships among C. burnetii environmental samples and compare them across studies. Given the genotypic diversity of historical collections, we hypothesized that the current enzootic of Coxiellosis is caused by multiple circulating genotypes. We collected A) 23 milk samples from a single bovine herd, B) 134 commercial bovine and caprine milk samples from across the U.S., and C) 400 bovine and caprine samples from six milk processing plants over three years.


We detected C. burnetii DNA in 96% of samples with no variance over time. We genotyped 88.5% of positive samples; bovine milk contained only a single genotype (ST20) and caprine milk was dominated by a second type (mostly ST8).


The high prevalence and lack of genotypic diversity is consistent with a model of rapid spread and persistence. The segregation of genotypes between host species is indicative of species-specific adaptations or dissemination barriers and may offer insights into the relative lack of human cases and characterizing genotypes.
Keywords Coxiella burnetii
Q fever
Environmental detection
Multispacer typing
SNP typing
Canonica SNP
DOI 10.1186/1471-2180-14-41   (check subscription with CDU E-Gateway service for CDU Staff and Students  check subscription with CDU E-Gateway in new window)
Additional Notes This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 2.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Description for Link Link to CC Attribution 2.0 License

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