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Factors that are associated with the risk of acquiring Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia: a case-control study protocol

Grigg, Matthew J., William, Timothy, Drakeley, Chris J., Jelip, Jenarun, von Seidlein, Lorenz, Barber, Bridget, Fornace, K. M., Anstey, Nicholas M., Yeo, Tsin W. and Cox, J. (2014). Factors that are associated with the risk of acquiring Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia: a case-control study protocol. BMJ Open,4(8 - Article No. e006004).

Document type: Journal Article
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IRMA ID 84473293xPUB12
NHMRC Grant No. 1037304
1045156
Title Factors that are associated with the risk of acquiring Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia: a case-control study protocol
Author Grigg, Matthew J.
William, Timothy
Drakeley, Chris J.
Jelip, Jenarun
von Seidlein, Lorenz
Barber, Bridget
Fornace, K. M.
Anstey, Nicholas M.
Yeo, Tsin W.
Cox, J.
Journal Name BMJ Open
Publication Date 2014
Volume Number 4
Issue Number 8 - Article No. e006004
ISSN 2044-6055   (check CDU catalogue  open catalogue search in new window)
Total Pages 10
Place of Publication United Kingdom
Publisher B M J Group
HERDC Category C1 - Journal Article (DIISR)
Abstract Introduction Plasmodium knowlesi has long been present in Malaysia, and is now an emerging cause of zoonotic human malaria. Cases have been confirmed throughout South-East Asia where the ranges of its natural macaque hosts and Anopheles leucosphyrus group vectors overlap. The majority of cases are from Eastern Malaysia, with increasing total public health notifications despite a concurrent reduction in Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The public health implications are concerning given P. knowlesi has the highest risk of severe and fatal disease of all Plasmodium spp in Malaysia. Current patterns of risk and disease vary based on vector type and competence, with individual exposure risks related to forest and forest-edge activities still poorly defined. Clustering of cases has not yet been systematically evaluated despite reports of peri-domestic transmission and known vector competence for human-to-human transmission.

Methods and analysis A population-based case–control study will be conducted over a 2-year period at two adjacent districts in north-west Sabah, Malaysia. Confirmed malaria cases presenting to the district hospital sites meeting relevant inclusion criteria will be requested to enrol. Three community controls matched to the same village as the case will be selected randomly. Study procedures will include blood sampling and administration of household and individual questionnaires to evaluate potential exposure risks associated with acquisition of P. knowlesi malaria. Secondary outcomes will include differences in exposure variables between P. knowlesi and other Plasmodium spp, risk of severe P. knowlesi malaria, and evaluation of P. knowlesi case clustering. Primary analysis will be per protocol, with adjusted ORs for exposure risks between cases and controls calculated using conditional multiple logistic regression models.

Ethics This study has been approved by the human research ethics committees of Malaysia, the Menzies School of Health Research, Australia, and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006004   (check subscription with CDU E-Gateway service for CDU Staff and Students  check subscription with CDU E-Gateway in new window)
Additional Notes This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Description for Link Link to CC Attribution 4.0 License
URL https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/au


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