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Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among a Nigerian adult population: relationship with income level and accessibility to CVD risks screening

Oguoma, Victor M., Nwose, Ezekiel U., Skinner, Timothy C., Digban, Kester A., Onyia, Innocent Chukwu and Richards, Ross S. (2015). Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among a Nigerian adult population: relationship with income level and accessibility to CVD risks screening. BMC Public Health,15(Article No. 1709).

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IRMA ID 75039815xPUB967
Title Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among a Nigerian adult population: relationship with income level and accessibility to CVD risks screening
Author Oguoma, Victor M.
Nwose, Ezekiel U.
Skinner, Timothy C.
Digban, Kester A.
Onyia, Innocent Chukwu
Richards, Ross S.
Journal Name BMC Public Health
Publication Date 2015
Volume Number 15
Issue Number Article No. 1709
ISSN 1471-2458   (check CDU catalogue open catalogue search in new window)
Scopus ID 2-s2.0-84928533468
Total Pages 16
Place of Publication United Kingdom
Publisher BioMed Central Ltd.
HERDC Category C1 - Journal Article (DIISR)
Abstract Background
In Nigeria, reports on the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are scarce. In addition, socio-economic status (SES), an important component of the socioeconomic gradient in CVD and its risk factors has not been clearly elucidated. This study sought to assess the prevalence of CVD risk factors and how the difference in prevalence and accessibility to CVD risk screening across income levels and educational backgrounds contributes to disease diagnosis in rural and urban Nigerian adults.

A cross sectional study was carried out on a sociocultural ethnic group of persons living in rural and urban settings. All participants were aged ≥ 18 years. The WHO STEPS questionnaire was used to document the demographics, history of previous medical check-up or screening, anthropometric and biochemical measurements of the participants. Average income level and educational status were indicators used to assess the impact of SES. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess any difference between the geographical locations and SES indicators, and prevalence of CVD risk factors and access to CVD risk screening.

The 422 participants (149 males and 273 females) had mean age (± standard deviation) of 38.3 ± 20.5 and 42.9 ± 20.7 years, respectively. Only total cholesterol (p = 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.005), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (p < 0.0001), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.03) and average income rate (p = 0.01) showed significant difference between gender groups. Overall prevalence of prediabetes (4.9%), diabetes (5.4%), hypertension (35.7%), low HDL (17.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (23.2%), hypercholesterolemia (38.1%) and central obesity of 52.2% was recorded. Except between total cholesterol (p = 0.042) and HDL (p = 0.017), other CVD risk factors did not show a statistical significance across income levels. Participants with ‘university and postgraduate education’ had higher access to blood pressure and blood glucose screening compared to other educational groups; and this showed a statistical significance.

This study has shown that a significant number of modifiable CVD risk factors exist in the rural and urban migrants of an adult Nigerian population. While income level did not affect the CVD risk factor prevalence, it did affect accessibility to CVD risk screening. There is a need for access to diagnosis of modifiable risk factors at all levels of society.
Keywords CVD risk factors
Socio-economic status
DOI   (check subscription with CDU E-Gateway service for CDU Staff and Students  check subscription with CDU E-Gateway in new window)
Additional Notes This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Description for Link Link to CC Attribution 4.0 License

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