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The Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation does not improve the underestimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) in people with diabetes and preserved renal function

Maclsaac, Richard J., Ekinci, Elif I., Premaratne, Erosha, Lu, Zhong X., Seah, Jas-mine, Li, Yue, Boston, Ray, Ward, Glenn M. and Jerums, George (2015). The Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation does not improve the underestimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) in people with diabetes and preserved renal function. BMC Nephrology,16(Article No. 198).

Document type: Journal Article
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IRMA ID 81144320xPUB195
Title The Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation does not improve the underestimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) in people with diabetes and preserved renal function
Author Maclsaac, Richard J.
Ekinci, Elif I.
Premaratne, Erosha
Lu, Zhong X.
Seah, Jas-mine
Li, Yue
Boston, Ray
Ward, Glenn M.
Jerums, George
Journal Name BMC Nephrology
Publication Date 2015
Volume Number 16
Issue Number Article No. 198
ISSN 1471-2369   (check CDU catalogue open catalogue search in new window)
Scopus ID 2-s2.0-84949309395
Total Pages 13
Place of Publication United Kingdom
Publisher BioMed Central Ltd.
HERDC Category C1 - Journal Article (DIISR)
Abstract Background
Our hypothesis was that both the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations would underestimate directly measured GFR (mGFR) to a similar extent in people with diabetes and preserved renal function.

Methods

In a cross-sectional study, bias (eGFR – mGFR) was compared for the CKD-EPI and MDRD equations, after stratification for mGFR levels. We also examined the ability of the CKD-EPI compared with the MDRD equation to correctly classify subjects to various CKD stages. In a longitudinal study of subjects with an early decline in GFR i.e., initial mGFR >60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and rate of decline in GFR (ΔmGFR) > 3.3 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year, ΔmGFR (based on initial and final values) was compared with ΔeGFR by the CKD-EPI and MDRD equations over a mean of 9 years.

Results

In the cross-sectional study, mGFR for the whole group was 80 ± 2.2 ml/min/1.73 m2 (n = 199, 75 % type 2 diabetes). For subjects with mGFR >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (mGFR: 112 ± 2.0, n = 76), both equations significantly underestimated mGFR to a similar extent: bias for CKD-EPI: -12 ± 1.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 (p < 0.001) and for MDRD: -11 ± 2.1 ml/min/1.73 m2 (p < 0.001). Using the CKD-EPI compared with the MDRD equation did not improve the number of subjects that were correctly classified to a CKD-stage. No biochemical or clinical patient characteristics were identified to account for the under estimation of mGFR values in the normal to high range by the CKD-EPI equation. In the longitudinal study (n = 30, 66 % type 1 diabetes), initial and final mGFR values were 102.8 ± 6 and 54.6 ± 6.0 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Mean ΔGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2 per year) was 6.0 by mGFR compared with only 3.0 by MDRD and 3.2 by CKD-EPI (both p < 0.05 vs mGFR)

Conclusions
Both the CKD-EPI and MDRD equations underestimate reference GFR values >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 as well as an early decline in GFR to a similar extent in people with diabetes. There is scope to improve methods for estimating an early decline in GFR.
Keywords Diabetes
Chronic
Kidney Disease
Nephropathy
CKD-EPI equation
Glomerular filtration rate
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-015-0196-0   (check subscription with CDU E-Gateway service for CDU Staff and Students  check subscription with CDU E-Gateway in new window)
Additional Notes This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Description for Link Link to CC Attribution 4.0 License
URL https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/au


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