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Non-protein amino acids in Australian acacia seed: Implications for food security and recommended processing methods to reduce djenkolic acid

Boughton, Berin A., Reddy, Priyanka, Boland, Martin P., Roessner, Ute and Yates, Peter (2015). Non-protein amino acids in Australian acacia seed: Implications for food security and recommended processing methods to reduce djenkolic acid. Food Chemistry,179:109-115.

Document type: Journal Article
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IRMA ID 75039815xPUB821
Title Non-protein amino acids in Australian acacia seed: Implications for food security and recommended processing methods to reduce djenkolic acid
Author Boughton, Berin A.
Reddy, Priyanka
Boland, Martin P.
Roessner, Ute
Yates, Peter
Journal Name Food Chemistry
Publication Date 2015
Volume Number 179
ISSN 0308-8146   (check CDU catalogue open catalogue search in new window)
Scopus ID 2-s2.0-84922358561
Start Page 109
End Page 115
Total Pages 7
Place of Publication Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier BV
Field of Research CHEMICAL SCIENCES
HERDC Category C1 - Journal Article (DIISR)
Abstract Seed of Australian acacia species, Acacia colei, Acacia elecantha, Acacia torulosa, Acacia turmida and Acacia saligna, were analysed for the presence of toxic non-protein amino acids and the levels of essential amino acids. Amines were derivatised with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate before analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ-MS). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with optimised transitions and collision energies for each analyte were employed. The known nephrotoxic compound djenkolic acid was found to be present at elevated levels in all species tested. The lowest levels were in A. colei (0.49% w/w) and the highest in A. saligna (1.85% w/w). Observed levels of djenkolic acid are comparable to measured and reported levels found in the djenkol bean. Subsequent testing of seed processing methods showed djenkolic acid levels can be significantly reduced by over 90% by dry roasting at 180 °C rendering the seed safe for human consumption.
Keywords Acacia
Acacia saligna
Acacia colei
Acacia torulosa
Acacia tumida
Acacia elacantha
Djenkolic acid
Food security
Famine food
Non-protein amino acid
Essential amino acid
Derivatisation
Mass spectrometry
Collision induced dissociation
Multiple reaction monitor
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.072   (check subscription with CDU E-Gateway service for CDU Staff and Students  check subscription with CDU E-Gateway in new window)
 
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