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Development and validation of the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experiences (MIRE)

Paradies, Yin C. and Cunningham, Joan (2008). Development and validation of the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experiences (MIRE). International Journal for Equity in Health,7:9.

Document type: Journal Article
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IRMA ID 10343xPUB21
Title Development and validation of the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experiences (MIRE)
Author Paradies, Yin C.
Cunningham, Joan
Journal Name International Journal for Equity in Health
Publication Date 2008
Volume Number 7
ISSN 1475-9276   (check CDU catalogue open catalogue search in new window)
Start Page 9
Total Pages 10
Place of Publication London, U.K.
Publisher BioMed Central Ltd.
Field of Research 1117 - Public Health and Health Services
HERDC Category C1 - Journal Article (DEST)
Abstract Background
In recent decades there has been increasing evidence of a relationship between self-reported racism and health. Although a plethora of instruments to measure racism have been developed, very few have been described conceptually or psychometrically Furthermore, this research field has been limited by a dearth of instruments that examine reactions/responses to racism and by a restricted focus on African American populations.


In response to these limitations, the 31-item Measure of Indigenous Racism Experiences (MIRE) was developed to assess self-reported racism for Indigenous Australians. This paper describes the development of the MIRE together with an opportunistic examination of its content, construct and convergent validity in a population health study involving 312 Indigenous Australians.

Focus group research supported the content validity of the MIRE, and inter-item/scale correlations suggested good construct validity. A good fit with a priori conceptual dimensions was demonstrated in factor analysis, and convergence with a separate item on discrimination was satisfactory.

The MIRE has considerable utility as an instrument that can assess multiple facets of racism together with responses/reactions to racism among indigenous populations and, potentially, among other ethnic/racial groups.
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