Upper respiratory tract infections (including otitis media) are the most common illnesses affecting children. Most illnesses are mild and resolve completely without specific treatment, but the frequency of infection and association with fever and constitutional symptoms creates significant distress for the child and the family. By understanding the evidence available from high-quality studies, the clinician can advise the families on appropriate action. The goal of this article is to support clinicians in answering the following questions: (1) What happened to children with these conditions when no additional treatment was provided? (2) Which interventions have been assessed in well-designed studies? (3) Which interventions have been shown to improve outcomes? (4) How large is the overall benefit?